Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs)

HMOs are a group of non-digestible carbohydrates found in breast milk. They are the third largest component of breast milk, after lactose and lipid.

Cow’s milk allergy vs lactose intolerance

Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy seen in early childhood. Food allergies such as CMA is a hypersensitivity reaction that involves the immune system. [pdf id=4508]

Infantile Colic

The term “colic” is used when a baby cries for long periods for no apparent reason. To define colic, the “rule of three” is mostly used. [pdf id=4500]


Diarrhoea is when a baby has three or more loose or liquid stools per day (or much looser, more watery more often than normal). [pdf id=4493]


Constipation isn’t just about how often an infant poops. It’s also about how difficult it is for them to do it. Frequency depends on age. [pdf id=4487]